Although CA failed to produce the results it strove to provide, it still lives on today, but on a more conceptual level in regards to communication. In these instances negative transfer happens and a quick explanation and moving on is all that is warranted. Final Thoughts.
There is not much applicable information relating to instruction in regards to CA since behaviorism and structuralism fell to the wayside, but it does bring some perspectives that can assist an educator. In another way, CA was a door to bigger and better forms of instruction and learning theory. With its failure, it enabled a deeper understanding of language education as a whole, and for that, it must be recognized.
You must be logged in to post a comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Remember Me. Search for:. It helps learners know more clearly and finding similarities and differences between them, thereby detecting errors, which bilingual learners often make, and how to fix. This assignment is based on contrastive linguistics. It uses many methods, especially contrastive method and surveys on grammatical aspect of these words. This study uses one-way transfer.
It is useful for bilingual learners to find mistakes which they can meet. It has been proven that students learn faster and more effectively using it. Since it is our nature to compare, Contrastive Linguistics is the technique that clarifies our understanding of the language. For learners, similarities between languages cause no difficulties, while differences cause interference to learning. Through Contrastive Linguistics we can target and resolve the typical difficulties and Common Mistakes of our students.
We can examine aspects that would not normally be noticed without such comparison. Bi-lingual comparative courses overlap in fruitful collaboration with other approaches. The task of the linguist is to identify these differences. The task of the writer of a foreign language teaching program is to develop materials which will be based on a statement of these differences; the task of the foreign language teacher is to be aware of these differences and to be prepared to teach them; the task of the student is to learn them.
There is a growing demand from both public and private sectors for professionals combining excellent language skills and sound linguistic theory and methodology. It help students acquire the ability to read, write, speak, and understand world languages reach maximum capability with respect to communications, effective reasoning, and analytical thinking; to educate students for living and working in a competitive global society..
As the field of linguistics became more accepted as a discipline, other scholars from different fields began to incorporate language-related topics into their work.
Contrative Linguistics found its way into sociology, anthropology, language arts, foreign language learning and teaching. It helps the translators to analyse the basic meaning and gist of the second language giving them an edge in interpretation jobs. Importance and uses of contrastive linguistics. Accessed September 20, If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less.
As Long and Sato pointed out, one cannot depend upon the analysis of a linguistic product to yield meaningful insight into a psycholinguistic process. If they are similar in such a way that the learning of one serves as partial learning of the other, there may be facilitation, or positive transfer. If, however, the similarities either of stimuli or responses are such that responses interfere with one another, then there will be greater interference as similarity increases. Strong vs.
Wardhaugh proposed a distinction between the strong and the weak version of the CA. The strong version [CAH] predicts apriori predictive. The weak version deals with learner errors and uses CA, when applicable, to explain them, apostriori, that is, after the fact. In fact, this was the beginning of error analysis, that is, the detecting of the source of errors. The process of L2 acquisition is not sufficiently described by the characterization of errors 2. Errors in L2 acquisition do not only arise from interference 3.
The structural differences between two languages are not sufficient to predict the occurrence of errors in L2 acquisition. In its strongest formulation, the CAH claimed that all the errors made in learning L2 could be attributed to 'interference' by the LI.
However, this claim could not be continued by empirical evidence that was accumulated in the mid- and late s. It was soon pointed out that many errors predicted by CA were inexplicably not observed in learners' language. Even more confusingly, some uniform errors were made by learners irrespective of their LI. It thus became clear that CA could not predict learning difficulties, and was only useful in the retrospective explanation of errors. These developments, along with the decline of the behaviorist and structuralist paradigms considerably weakened the appeal of CA.
Learners' LI influences L2 learning. Of course, CA survived. No one can deny that the LI influences L2 performance.
Thus, the next approach was to limit the analysis to the examination of errors that students actually made. This, however, had its problems. Investigating cross-linguistic influence, language transfer from the point of view of errors 4. Pit Corder The significance of learner's errors. The mathematical analysis done to show quantitatively how uncertainties in data produce uncertainty in calculated results, and to find the sizes of the uncertainty in the results.
A type of work sample analysis in which the incorrect responses of the student are described and categorized. In this procedure, samples of learner's language are collected and the errors are identified, described, and classified according to their hypothesized causes.
The errors are then evaluated for relative seriousness. The analysis of the errors could serve as basis for inferring the learning strategies the learners employ.
Below is a list of categories of errors which reflect the general characteristics of rule learning Richards: : i Overgeneralization. This occurs when the learners apply a particular rule of the Target Language TL that they have previously learned.
What the learners create are deviant structures on the basis of their experience of other structures in the TL. Usually, the deviant structures formed involve redundancy or redundancy reduction. Closely related to the generalization of structures is the failure to observe the restrictions of existing structures, that is, the application of rules to contexts where they do not apply. Some morpho syntactic errors revealed the learner's failure to observe the conditions operating in certain grammatical categories of the TL. This refers to the learner's failure to apply the operational components of the TL.
This might cause the learner to produce deviant sentences associated with subject-verb agreement, subordinate clauses, and others.
This happens when a learner falsely comprehend the distinctions of the various categories of the TL. The learner fails to comprehend subtle differences in the use of certain categories of the TL. Some linguistic errors are attributed to the use of some grammatical categories or structures of the native or source language in the second language performance. These are errors dealing with the meaning and use of words in relation to their context or linguistic situations.
Lexical errors may be attributed to the learner's having limited lexicon of the TL or that lexical items have not yet been taught or learner might not have learned them yet. Contrastive Analysis Vs. Error Analysis Contrastive analysis Error analysis Pedagogical orientation Scientific orientation Focus on input, practice inductive learning Focus on linguistic and cognitive processes Errors of transfer Multiple types of errors Classification of Errors Surface classification Dulay, Burt, C Krashen, ; Ellis, Omission The dog sleeping.