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The declaration of independence and the question of slavery. Forging freedom and fighting slavery in the north : First steps to freedom. The continual struggle: southern slaves and masters : Private and public rebellion. The second American revolution and the end of slavery : Justified rebellion. Loading Excerpt Author Notes. Loading Author Notes More Details.
Similar Series From NoveList. Similar Titles From NoveList. Similar Authors From NoveList. Editorial Reviews. Published Reviews. Reviews from GoodReads. Loading GoodReads Reviews. Staff View. According to nineteenth century publications on the geography of leprosy, Colombia competed with India for primacy in terms of incidence of the disease — a contest that the Colombian elites refused to win.
In the s, John Hawkins illicitly sold slaves seized in Sierra Leone to local pearl fishermen and, in , his kinsman, the famous English pirate Francis Drake, sacked Riohacha and sailed away with African slaves as part of his booty. Conditions were brutal and many of the enslaved, like their counterparts elsewhere in Colombia, soon fled their misery eastward to the La Guajira Peninsula where they joined indigenous rebels fighting their mutual Spanish oppressors. The bulk of this highly profitable, but in Spanish law, illicit, trade was in livestock horses, cattle, mules and goats , textiles and slaves.
For example, on 23 March , the widow Ana Sierra sold a year-old mulatta slave named Felipa to Maria Francisca Blanchard, a merchant in Riohacha, for pesos. Peace allowed for the southward expansion of the agricultural and cattle ranching frontier, increased production for internal consumption and commercial exchange, and the further integration of Riohacha.
Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Please direct questions and comments to Deborah Mercer. In varying degrees in different parts of the colonies, they had undergone an acculturative process that had created a new cultural group of people: African Americans. This paradox illumines the unpredictability of events in the Americas. Explain that these notices are primary source documents, often containing considerable information about their subjects. Aiding the acculturative process was the emergence by the end of the colonial period of the key African American social institution: the family. What happened as a result: States with large slave populations ended up with more power both in Congress and in the Supreme Court, which undercut the power of abolition states.
As Bourbon reformers of the eighteenth century attempted to halt smuggling and encourage development in Riohacha, they also established new towns to help support their most important port of Cartagena de Indias. The Catholic church mandated the baptism of African slaves in the fifteenth century and extended this requirement across the Catholic Americas. Once baptised, Africans and their descendants were also eligible for the sacraments of marriage and a Christian burial. Thus, community networks can be traced through patterns of compadrazgo godparentage. However, researchers can at times find racial clues in the names of parents.
In Fig. That the father bore an ethnic surname suggests that he is African-born, or at least not recognised as fully acculturated. However, he is a free man; otherwise his enslaved status would have been noted. A notation to the left of the entry indicates that the baptism was performed as an act of charity, meaning that the parents could not afford the standard ecclesiastical fee. Despite challenges from French and Dutch competitors in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Portuguese successfully colonised Brazil, transferring techniques of sugarcane cultivation and slaves from West and Central Africa to the coast of Brazil.
The names and dates of the first settlers to the region are unknown but they clustered along river routes to raise livestock and routinely battled the Cariri and Tarairiu Indians. Note the Capitania de Paraiba, highlighted on the northeastern coast. Traveling salesmen with convoys of donkeys distributed these products throughout the hinterland towns.
That historians have only recently begun to emphasise the importance of reconstructing and analysing the history of this population is not surprising, given their subaltern status. These recurrent droughts killed livestock and slaves and created a cycle of poverty in the region from which, some would say, it has never fully recovered. Unfortunately, as the examples that follow demonstrate, these sources are frequently in poor condition and in danger of disintegrating or disappearing within the next decade.
The iron-based ink originally used to record these documents has oxidised, eating through the paper and leaving fragile, brittle pages that either break into strips or seem to disintegrate at the slightest touch. Preserving a digital copy of these records, then, is the only way to ensure further research in these documents. Photo by Courtney J.
The governor would respond to the petition with a letter determining a period by which the petitioner had to cultivate the land and, once the petitioner had met these requirements, he or she would send a new petition to the King who would confirm the sesmaria. These grants came with strings attached: in order to maintain ownership of the land, the landowner had to cultivate it productively; otherwise, the Portuguese Crown would rescind the grant.
For example, the document in Fig. While these land grants are fairly formulaic, we learn particular details from each.
Finally, the inclusion in this letter of handwritten copies of other letters exchanged with various authorities about this particular grant allows the reader to witness the various levels of bureaucracy involved in the granting of one plot of land. This volume is in a particularly damaged state, suffering from both insect damage and oxidisation of iron-based ink, with the above page being one of the few that is in one piece and fully legible. It also includes documents referring to the parish finances Of particular interest in this book are the terms used to describe those baptised, married or buried.
Grade 7 & Up--This excellent series entry brings together hundreds of primary documents to tell the history of slavery. Waldstreicher takes a chronological. The Struggle against Slavery. A History in Documents. David Waldstreicher. Publication Date - January ISBN: pages. Hardcover.
At times, slaves also served as godparents. We also learn from this document details about the layout of the region, the names of the fazendas ranches , and the names of smaller chapels where burials were also performed. She demonstrates that slaves often tried to purchase freedom or escape, while the poor black population lived precariously on the edge of freedom and slavery.
Slaves used baptism to establish kinship relations with free people in an attempt to seek freedom, or, at the very least, to create social conditions that eased their survival in captivity. As Brazil struggles to come to terms with the legacies of indigenous displacement and African slavery, quilombos maroon-descended communities and indigenous groups might draw upon these records to legally establish their lineage or vindicate their rights.
The FCP also is in charge of protecting the legal rights of quilombos and pulling together the documentation necessary to support their historical justification. Ecclesiastical records, like those used to support the research of Lima, Pereira, and Mouzinho, are fundamental in the preservation of Afro-Brazilian patrimony.
By combining data from historical sources with GIS and satellite technologies, the Tabajara and socially-dedicated scholars have joined forces with some humble, yet significant successes. Andrews, Kenneth R. Andrews, K. Campbell, Courtney J. Grahn, Lance R. Fisher, Allan J.
Heywood, Linda M. Lane, Kris E.
Sharpe, Mosquera, Sergio A.